Countries in Northern Europe generally have developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world. Shakespeare turned this fashionable mode into high art. Before his death, Pierre Montaigne had persuaded his son to translate into French the Book of Creatures or Natural Theology by the fifteenth-century Spanish theologian Raymond of Sabunde (died 1436). During the Renaissance the most popular forms of entertainment among the upper classes were music and the court masque. In 1580 he was named secretary to Arthur Grey de Wilton (1536–1593), the new lord deputy of Ireland. Printed in 1515, De inventione was widely read by advanced students, professors, and theoreticians during the sixteenth century. He also created designs for the rebuilding of the cathedral at Valladolid, considered one of his greatest achievements. . Jonson then wrote one of his most important works, the tragedy Sejanus His Fall (1603), which was admired by intellectuals but considered boring by average playgoers. In 1935 he was canonized as a saint in the Catholic Church. The Elizabethan era produced some of the greatest literature in Western history, and Britain became a major world power by expanding its empire into the New World (the European term for the Americas). In 1509 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1459–1519; ruled 1493–1519) authorized him to examine Jewish books and to destroy those that prevented conversion. more religious as he approached the age of thirty a decade earlier (see "Humanist literature" in Chapter 8). I have even heard Americans think that 200 years was 'ancient', a term that for Europeans normally refers to the Ancient World, i.e. Bartholomew Fair (1614) has a relatively thin plot featuring a rich and varied collection of unusual characters. The course of the Renaissance in England followed the history of the Tudors, the royal family who gained control of the throne in 1485. He served at the papal court and the court of Savoy before returning to Cambrai in 1439. Riemenschneider controlled all aspects of altarpiece production, so his large workshop included joiners (artisans who join pieces of wood), sculptors, and painters. Until 1519 Dürer worked for Emperor Maximilian I. Humanists were instrumental in revealing the great ignorance of some scholastics and the inaccuracy of their work. Often accompanying traders, Italian humanist scholars journeyed north to work as diplomats (official representatives of governments), secretaries, and university lecturers. These tragedies present an astonishing series of worlds different from one another, in language that exceeds anything Shakespeare had done before. One result was that the humanists started the Brethren of the Common Life, an educational movement that emphasized inner piety. The following year he fought heroically and was wounded at the Battle of Lepanto, a naval conflict in which an alliance of European nations defeated the Ottoman He did not continue his schooling, probably because his stepfather forced him to engage in the more practical business of bricklaying. Herrera's main contribution to the project was the church, the Basilica of San Lorenzo el Real. The first Dutch psalter (psalm book) was published in 1540 by Symon Cock in Antwerp. Published in 1516, Utopia describes an imaginary land that is free of ostentation (grand displays of wealth), greed, and violence. The gallery was decorated with large narrative frescoes and other details such as fresco medallions and friezes, stucco reliefs (raised images on a flat background), and woodwork. The king then ordered a new picture of the same subject from the Italian painter Romulo Cincinnato. In fact, he considered entering the priesthood. Although there were several important composers from the Low Countries during the Renaissance, their dominance had essentially passed by the end of the sixteenth century. Interested in philosophical and religious matters, she was familiar with the works of Italian poets Dante (1265–1321) and Petrarch (1304–1374; see "Poetry" in Chapter 8) and with the Bible. Dufay's innovations became the standard in Europe for the rest of the fifteenth century. It is known that he came from the province of Touraine, where he may have had a scholastic education. When he returned to London he began his greatest work, Utopia, a fiction that he wrote in Latin and modeled on Plato's Republic. section later in this chapter). The Renaissance in France is often thought to begin with the reign of King Francis I (1494–1547), who ruled from 1515 to 1547. Among his numerous works were orations, poems, letters, and Latin translations of Greek texts, most of which were published after his death. He constantly attacked the presumption, arrogance, His first chronicle plays were Henry VI (1592) and Richard III (1594). The masque was customarily performed as part of Christmas festivities, or else staged to mark significant state occasions. The English Renaissance was firmly established when Queen Elizabeth I (1533–1603; ruled 1558–1603), the last Tudor monarch, died in 1603. Engraving seems to have begun in the upper region of the Rhine River valley, near Lake Constance. Josquin des Prez (c. 1450–1521) was one of the most important musical figures of the Renaissance. Without his knowledge of human activity—action, contemplation, and was completed in 1516 the pope refused! So clever Princess Mary, the northern europe culture of Malta ( printed 1590 ) is a Finnish... 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